Embrace the Struggle! It is natural that studying is not one of your son’s favourite things to do. Reassure him that this is normal. Studying is hard and Ulrich Boser believes that struggle is the root of effective learning and this is because the brain needs to actively create meaning from previously unknown information. In fact, he contends that difficulty improves academic outcomes. Repetition is also important as people need to interact with material at least three times to fully comprehend it. To make learning more challenging, students can use retrieval practice throughout the day (not just at formal study times), summarize material in writing, mix up topics when studying and embrace the struggle!